The fact that today's American Liberal is the lineal descendant of the British Tory is hard to contest. The public employee is the modern equivalent of landed aristocracy. Government by experts is the modern equivalent of Divine Right of Kings. Most telling is the political theory expressed by Hollywood in With Honors, where the Presidency, it is concluded, is an elected monarchy. Doesn't get much more Tory than that. Add to that the fact that modern liberals consider Congress a cipher.